Foreign national: Someone in Canada on temporary status. This can include an individual in Canada as a visitor/tourist, a work permit, or a study permit. This status is temporary and typically has a strict expiry date. The individual is expected to return to their country of origin at the end of their stay.
Permanent Resident: Permanent residence is one step closer to becoming a Canadian citizen. It gives the individual the right to reside in and work in Canada, and also, for example, provides a person with an opportunity for health insurance coverage, and a social insurance number (SIN). There are residency obligations for permanent residents (they must be physically present in Canada for 730 days for every five years), and can lose permanent residence for not abiding by residency obligations. A person may also lose their permanent residence for other reasons, including criminality. A permanent resident is given a PR card that allows them to enter Canada, but they typically also travel with the passport of their country of origin.
Canadian citizen: One can become a Canadian citizen either by virtue of their birth in Canada, being born to Canadian parents, or after having permanent residence for a requisite period of time (depending on a person’s circumstances). Becoming a Canadian citizen involves completing a citizenship exam and taking an oath to Her Majesty the Queen. Citizens are eligible for a Canadian passport. It is incredibly difficult for one to lose Canadian citizenship.